in memory of Dr. Jan van Biezen, 1927–2021


Proper of the Mass for Sundays and Feasts in Proportional Rhythm

Chant recordings sung in proportional rhythm according to the oldest extant manuscripts (YouTube)

Table of Neumes (PDF) - including Metz, St. Gall, Vatican, neography, and modern notations with a summary of principal differences between proportional rhythm and the Solesmes method

Table of Neumatic Elements (PDF); one-page, Gregorian notation without rhythmic markings

Rearticulation and Upper Auxiliary Notes (PDF)

Written Evidence for the Decline and Loss of the Authentic Traditional Rhythm

Who's Who in Gregorian Chant

Editorial Principles


“King James Only" Catholics

“Gregorian Rhythm Wars" Exchange at CCWatershed

Rhythmic Analysis of the Introit Dominus Dixit (PDF)

Critique of the Solesmes Edition of the Offertory Oravi Deum (PDF); includes side-by-side rhythmic comparison in both modern and Gregorian notation

Recommended Reading:

Excerpt from Gregorian Chant according to the Manuscripts by Dom Gregory Murray, O.S.B. (full PDF here)

Summary of “The Rhythm of Gregorian Chant” from Rhythm, Meter and Tempo in Gregorian Chant by Dr. Jan van Biezen; the examples in square notation are available here

Further Reading:

Tradition of Durational Values in Gregorian Chant" by Arthur Angie (in The Caecilia, 1934, vol. 60, no. 10–11)

Collected Articles on Chant Rhythm by Dom Gregory Murray, O.S.B.

Gregorian Chant: A History of the Controversy Concerning Its Rhythm by John Rayburn

Rhythmic Proportions in Early Medieval Ecclesiastical Chant by Fr. Jan Vollaerts, S.J.


Mensuralism & Historically Informed Performance Practice:


  • under the direction of the late Fr. Roman Bannwart, O.S.B., on Spotify and YouTube; these recordings generally agree with the semi-mensuralist rhythmic theories articulated by Dr. Dirk van Kampen in this article

Note: Most if not all of the following sites presuppose a nuanced, non-proportional rhythmic interpretation.

Restored Editions:

  • Graduale Authenticum - the best online resource for viewing the oldest manuscripts; arranged according to the novus ordo Roman calendar

  • Graduale Synopticum - same edition and numbering as the Graduale Authenticum, with different search options; the Antiphonale Synopticum is accessible at the same site

  • Introits from the Graduale Novum - triplex edition incorporating the melodic corrections of the AISCGre working group published in the journal Beiträge zur Gregorianik

  • Graduale Restitutum - Anton Stingl's duplex edition incorporating the AISCGre melodic corrections, arranged according to the novus ordo Roman calendar; normally the same reading as the Graduale Novum

  • Offertoriale Restitutum - Anton Stingl's duplex edition with offertory verses

  • Graduale Renovatum - Royce Nickel's edition; normally the same reading as the Graduale Novum and Graduale Restitutum

  • Graduale Lagal - Chris Hakkennes's edition; arranged according to the novus ordo calendar

  • Graduel Neumé - Solesmes edition, pre-Pius XII, with St. Gall neumes copied by Dom Cardine

  • Graduale Duplex - Vatican edition with St. Gall neumes; arranged according to the novus ordo calendar

  • Several chants in duplex and triplex editions with melodic corrections from the Académie de chant grégorien, Brussels

Solesmes Method & Editions:

mnemonic for ictus placement: 1's 1 (vertical episema), 2's double (beginning of doubled or tripled note), 3's a group (beginning of a group), 4's full (full or double bar line)

PDF Libraries:

Church Regulations concerning Chant Editions:

  • Col Nostro (Italian) motu proprio of Pope St. Pius X authorizing the Vatican chant edition and permitting the approval of other books only if the variations in the chant come from good manuscripts (paragraph D)

  • Pietras Dubia & PCED Response (2018) tolerating chant editions and interpretations other than Solesmes/Vatican, no. 24; note that Pérès and his disciples use editions that sometimes differ considerably from the Vatican edition




Patrick Williams: organistAL at aol dot com