Recommended Reading:

Excerpt from Gregorian Chant according to the Manuscripts by Dom Gregory Murray, O.S.B. (full PDF here)

Summary of “The Rhythm of Gregorian Chant” from Rhythm, Meter and Tempo in Gregorian Chant by Dr. Jan van Biezen; the examples in square notation are available here

Further Reading:

Tradition of Durational Values in Gregorian Chant" by Arthur Angie (in The Caecilia, 1934, vol. 60, no. 10–11)

Collected Articles on Chant Rhythm by Dom Gregory Murray, O.S.B.

Gregorian Chant: A History of the Controversy Concerning Its Rhythm by John Rayburn

Rhythmic Proportions in Early Medieval Ecclesiastical Chant by Fr. Jan Vollaerts, S.J.


Mensuralism & Historically Informed Performance Practice:


Note: Most if not all of the following sites presuppose a nuanced, non-proportional rhythmic interpretation.

Restored Editions:

Neumed Editions without Melodic Corrections:

Solesmes Method & Editions:

mnemonic for ictus placement: 1's 1 (vertical episema), 2's double (beginning of doubled or tripled note), 3's a group (beginning of a group), 4's full (full or double bar line)

PDF Libraries:

Church Regulations concerning Chant Editions:





Patrick Williams: organistAL at aol dot com